Pipes are used for carrying gas, cold and hot water, and other liquids from one place to another safely. Different types of pipes are used in different circumstances.

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Cast Iron Pipe

Cast Iron pipe is widely used for city water-distribution systems because of its high resistance to corrosion and consequent long life. Cast iron pipe is made from pig iron. Such pipes are normally made from 5 cm to 120 cm in diameter.Under normal conditions, a cast iron pipe can be expected to last 100 years.

The usual length of a pipe section is 12 ft, but lengths up to 20 ft can be obtained. Cast iron pipe is made in several thickness classes for various pressures up to a maximum of 350 psi.
Cast-iron pipes are usually dipped in a bituminous compound for protection against corrosion and to improve their hydraulic qualities; larger sizes may be provided with a lining of cement mortar. A common joint for cast iron pipe is the bell and spigot. A few strands of jute are wrapped around the spigot before it is inserted into the bell, and then more jute is packed into the joint.

Finally, the space between the bell and spigot is tilled with a molten lead, which is tightly caulked into the joint after cooling. Patented compounds of sulfur and other materials and neat cement mortar are also used for joints. These materials are cheaper than lead, but the joints are usually less flexible. The flanged pipe is used for pumping stations, filter plants, and other locations where it may be necessary to disjoint the pipe. Flanged couplings must be fitted perfectly and provided with a gasket if they are to be watertight. Because of the skilled labor required for lead joints, numerous mechanical couplings are finding extensive use and have largely replaced bell-and-spigot joints. These couplings are bolted together and designed to avoid the careful fit required of ordinary hanged couplings and to permit flexibility in pipe placement. One of the most common is the Dresser coupling.
Cast iron pipes are also cheap and economical. These pipes can be joined easily and can be cut and bored easily too.
They are durable up-to 100 years of life but, as time passes, their strength of carrying water decreases. They cannot bear pressure more than 7 kg per square centimeter: The cast iron pipes are generally cut with chisel and hammer, but for a better cutting cutter and hack saw can be used.
Following methods are used to join a cast iron pipe.
(i). Bell and Spigot Joint.
(ii). Hanged Joint.
(iii). Expansion Joint.

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Galvanized Iron Pipe (G.I).

G.I pipes are made of mild steel sheet. Its length-wise joint is Welded Seam Type. G.I pipe is used to supply water, gas or any other liquid inside the building. These types of pipes are prepared from 12 mm ( 0.5 inches) to 15 cm ( 6 inches) in diameter. They are available in 6 meters ( 20 feet) length. The thickness of the wall of its sheet is different according to their diameters. After preparing this pipe, it is dipped in zinc solution. This action is known as Galvanizing. In this way, the pipe is saved from rusting. The average age of this pipe is 10 years. They can be joined easily, cutting, threading, and bending them is also an easy task. They are joined with the help of a socket. These pipes are light-weighted and cheap. Acidic and alkaline waters affect these pipes badly.

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Wrought Iron Pipe.

These types of pipes are like G. I. Pipes. They are also used to carry water, gas or certain other liquid from one place to another. The only difference between wrought iron pipe and G.I is that wrought iron pipes are prepared by welding wrought iron sheet. In addition, seamless pipes are also made.
The weight of such pipe is less. Cutting, threading, and bending of this pipe is quite easy. To join such pipes following joints are used:
(i) Socket Joint
(ii) Flanged Joint
(iii) Welded Joint
Wrought iron pipes are made from 12 mm(0.5 inches) to 15 cm (6 inches) in diameter.

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Steel Pipe.

Steel pipes are used to carry water, gas or certain other liquid from one place to the other under pressure. These pipes are made from steel sheets.
Small pipes have welded joint along the length which is not visible. Large pipes have riveted joint or welded joint.
After making such pipes, they are dipped in Zinc solution. This action is called Galvanizing and is used to prevent the pipe from rusting. The average age of such pipes is from 25 years to 50 years. These pipes are light in weight. They can be joined by a welded joint. They are placed on Open Supports. They are also joined by Flanged Joint.
Such pipes can be bent easily. Acidic water and alkaline water can rust these pipes. Repair of this type of pipe is difficult. They can also be pressed by external pressure due to their less wall thickness.

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Copper Pipe.

Copper pipes are made of small diameter. Since copper does not admit rust, so these pipes are durable. However, as copper is costly, therefore, they are used in limited places.
These types of pipes are generally used to carry hot water or steam. They do not bend or sag even at high temperature.
Copper is a mild metal. Therefore, copper pipes can be bent easily. They are joined by Flanged Joint and Union Joints.

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Plastic Pipe.

These pipes – which includes rubber and P. V. C. pipes – are used for the supply of water, acidic water, and alkaline water. Hot water should not be carried out.
These pipes are joined using a thread joint or socket is joined with a solution. Such pipes are not rusted. They are light in weight. Cutting, bending, and jointing are easy for these pipes. These types of pipes have good resistance against electric current. They become useless on increasing temperature. They also become useless on being tempered by nail, etc.

For gravity flow, the no-joint concrete pipe has been developed in California. This pipe has been constructed in sizes 24 to 72 inches. A special pipe-laying machine with a slip form is used. Rates of production vary from 40 to 120 ft/hr. Though this pipe is not reinforced, the experience record to date has been good.
A special pipe-laying machine with a slip form is used.
Rates of production vary from 40 to 120 ft/hr. Though this pipe is not reinforced, the experience record to date has been good.
A concrete pipe should last at least 35 to 50 years under average conditions. Alkaline water may cause rapid deterioration of thin concrete sections. Concrete pipes carrying wastewater may be subject to sulfide corrosion and may be short-lived unless proper precautions are taken.
Concrete Pipes are generally used these days. They are used even in low as well as high pressure. Plain concrete pipes are made for low pressure, and R. C. C. ( Reinforced Cement Concrete) pipes are made for high pressure.
Plain concrete pipes can bear Water-head up to 15 meters ( 50 feet) R. C. C. pipes can bear Water-head up to 75 meters ( 230 feet). For pressure more than this, pre-stressed pipes are made. Less expenditure is required for their maintenance. Rust does not affect these pipes, and they can be made at will. Such pipes are heavy. So, their transportation is difficult. It is also difficult to repair them.

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Fabrication of pipes

Pipe fabrication is the process of welding piping components such as pipes, elbows, tees, flanges, etc., into engineered piping systems in exact accordance with our customers' design requirements.

Large Diameter Steel Pipe

Large diameter steel pipe production process is generally a result of these processes:
Electric Resistance Welded Pipe. High Frequency Induction Welded Pipe.
Electric Fusion Welded Pipes. Longitudinally Submerged Arc Welded Steel pipes.
UOE (Uing and Oing forming) Pipes. J-ing, C-ing and O-ing pipes.

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